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Corrosion

Corrosion Resistance

For increased corrosion resistance and for customers' specific requirements, a range of standard finishes is available. The matrix below compares the various features of these finishes and can be used as a guide to selecting the most appropriate surface finish for an application.

Note

European Directive 2000/53/EC Vehicle End of Life (ELV) Legislation states that hexavalent chromium (Cr6+), lead, mercury and cadmium are substances banned from vehicles marketed after 1 July 2007. Avdel® fasteners do not contain cadmium or mercury.

However, yellow passivation treatment of zinc and zinc alloy plating contains hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) and some hot tin dipped coatings contain lead.

In conjunction with metal finishing companies, the automotive industry, and the electronics industry, Avdel® have developed finishes that are free from both Cr6+ and lead.

If you require further information on this work, please contact your local Avdel® representative.

 

light moderateseverevery severe
Corrosion
Conditions
Galvanic
Corrosion
Hexavalent
Chromium
Electrical
Conductivity
Temperature
Resistance
Appearance Availability Cost
Zinc plate
+ yellow
passivation
Refer
to Chart
Yes Conductive Moderate/
Low
Iridescent
Yellow
Moderate/
Good
Low
Zinc/nickel
plate + yellow
passivation
Refer
to Chart
Yes Conductive Good Iridescent
Yellow
Moderate/
Good
High
Zinc plate +
clear
passivation
Refer
to Chart
No Conductive Moderate Clear/
Metallic
Blue Tinge
Good Low
Zinc plate +
clear
passivation +
sealer
Refer
to Chart
No Conductive Moderate Clear/
Metallic
Blue Tinge
Good Moderate
Zinc/nickel
plate +
clear
passivation
Refer
to Chart
No Conductive Good Clear/
Metallic
Blue Tinge
Good High
Zinc/nickel
plate +
black
passivation
Refer
to Chart
No Conductive Good Black Good High
Zinc plate +
Deltaseal
None No Non
Conductive
Moderate Black
Silver
Good Moderate
Zinc/nickel
plate +
Deltaseal
None No Non
Conductive
Good Black
Silver
Good High
Phosphate
and
Deltaseal
None No Non
Conductive
Moderate Black
Silver
Good Moderate
Zinc/nickel
plate +
KTL
None No Non
Conductive
Good Black Moderate High



Typically indoors and warm dry atmospheres.
Typically indoors where moisture can occur. Outdoors in mild corrosive conditions.
Typically outdoors in moderate corrosion conditions for example light industrial and possibly external vehicle applications.
Typically outdoors in severe corrosive conditions for example marine, industrial or vehicle engine compartment or under body.

Galvanic Corrosion

Galvanic corrosion occurs when two dissimilar metals are in close contact with an electrolyte, a medium through which an electrical current can flow. The presence of water as moisture can act as an electrolyte. The rate of corrosion depends upon the differences in electrical potential, or anodic-cathodic relationship, of the metals in the joint as defined by the Galvanic Series of Metals & Alloys. (See below).

A highly anodic metal in contact with a highly cathodic metal will corrode much more quickly than two highly cathodic metals or when the metals are closer together in the galvanic series.

When corrosion occurs it is the anodic metal most likely to corrode and the cathodic metal least likely to corrode.

To reduce the likelihood of galvanic corrosion in a fastened joint, it is recommended that the designer choose metals that are grouped together in the galvanic series chart. If that is not possible, other recommendations are:

  • Select metals which are as close together in the chart as possible.
  • Provide a barrier between the metals, such as paint, non-metallic washer, gaskets or jointing compound.
  • Design the fastener as the cathode so that the cathodic area is as small as possible to the anode area.
  • Use a metallic finish on the fastener that is close on the chart to the mating metal.
  • Use a non-conductive and inert finish on the fastener.

 

Galvanic Series

Anodic End (Most Likely to Corrode)

  • Magnesium and its alloys
  • Zinc and zinc plating on steel
  • Aluminium Alloys
  • Cadmium
  • Mild Steel & Iron
  • Cast Iron
  • 13% Chromium stainless steel (active)
  • 18-8 Austenitic stainless steels (active)
  • Tin-Lead, Lead and Tin
  • Nickel (active)
  • Brasses
  • Copper
  • Bronzes
  • Cupronickel Alloys
  • Silver Solder
  • Nickel (passive)
  • Iron-chromium alloys (passive condition)
  • 18-8 austenitic stainless steels (passive condition)
  • Silver
  • Titanium
  • Gold and other precious metals

Cathode (Least Likely to Corrode)